particles, solids, liquids, gases, chemical change, physical change, conducting a fair test,

independent variable, dependent variable, controlled variable,


  • Chemical change – a change that results in the conversion of the original substances to form new substances.

  • Physical change – a change in which no new substance is formed.

  • Independent Variable – the thing that is changed during an investigation.

  • Dependent variable – the thing that is affected by the independent variable and is measured or observed.

  • Controlled variables – all the other things in an investigation that could change but are kept the same to make it a fair test.

  • Cows Moo Softly – use this phrase to remember how to plan a fair test:

Cows: Change one thing (independent variable)

Moo: Measure/observe another thing (dependent variable) and

Softly: Keep the other things (controlled variables) the same.